The Present Perfect tense is a rather important tense in English, but it gives speakers of some languages a difficult time. That is because it uses concepts or ideas that do not exist in those languages. In fact, the structure  of the Present Perfect is very simple. The problems come with the use  of the tense. In addition, there are some differences in usage between British and American English.

In this lesson we look at the structure and use  of the Present Perfect tense, as well as the use of for and since , followed by a quiz  to check your understanding.

The Present Perfect tense is really a very interesting tense, and a very useful one. Try not to translate the Present Perfect into your language. Just try to accept the concepts of this tense and learn to "think" Present Perfect! You will soon learn to like  the Present Perfect tense!

How do we make the Present Perfect tense?

The structure of the Present Perfect is:

subject+auxiliary have+main verb
  conjugated in Present Simple  
have, haspast participle

The auxiliary verb (have) is conjugated in the Present Simple: have, has

The main verb is invariable in past participle form: -ed (or irregular)

For negative sentences we insert not  between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.

For question sentences, we exchange  the subject and the auxiliary verb.

Look at these example sentences with the Present Perfect tense:

 subjectauxiliary verb main verb 
+Ihave seenET.
+Youhave eatenmine.
-Shehasnotbeento Rome.
-Wehavenotplayedfootball.
?Haveyou finished? 
?Havethey doneit?

Contraction with Present Perfect

When we use the Present Perfect in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I haveI've
You haveYou've
He has
She has
It has
John has
The car has
He's
She's
It's
John's
The car's
We haveWe've
They haveThey've
  • You've told me that before.
  • John's seen¬†Harry Potter.

In negative sentences, we may contract the auxiliary verb and "not":

  • You haven't won the contest.
  • She hasn't heard from him.
He's or he's ??? Be careful! The 's  contraction is used for the auxiliary verbs have and be . For example, "It's eaten" can mean:
  • It¬†has ¬†eaten. (Present Perfect tense, active voice)
  • It¬†is ¬†eaten. (Present Simple tense, passive voice)
It is usually clear from the context.

How do we use the Present Perfect tense?

This tense is called the Present  Perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and  with the present.

We use the Present Perfect to talk about:

  • experience
  • change
  • continuing situation

Present Perfect for experience

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about experience  from the past. We are not interested in when  you did something. We only want to know if  you did it:

I  have seen an alien.
He  has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
pastpresentfuture
 
!!! 
The action or state was in the past.In my head, I have a memory now. 

Connection with past: the event was in the past
Connection with present: in my head, now , I have a memory of the event; I know  something about the event; I have experience  of it

Present Perfect for change

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about a change , or new information:

I  have bought a car.
pastpresentfuture
-+ 
Last week I didn't have a car.Now I have a car. 
John  has broken his leg.
pastpresentfuture
+- 
Yesterday John had a good leg.Now he has a bad leg. 
Has  the price gone up?
pastpresentfuture
+- 
Was the price $1.50 yesterday?Is the price $1.70 today? 
The police have arrested the killer.
pastpresentfuture
-+ 
Yesterday the killer was free.Now he is in prison. 

Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present
Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past

Americans do use the Present Perfect but less than British speakers. Americans often use the Past Simple tense instead. An American might say "Did you have lunch?", where a British person would say "Have you had lunch?"

Present Perfect for continuing situation

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past  and continues in the present  (and will probably continue into the future). This is a situation  (not an action). We usually use for or since  with this structure.

I  have worked here since June.
He  has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known  Tara (for)?
pastpresentfuture
 
 
 
 
 
The situation started in the past.It continues up to now.(It will probably continue into the future.)

Connection with past: the situation started in the past.
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.

For and Since  with Present Perfect tense

We often use for and since  with perfect tenses:

  • We use¬†for ¬†to talk about a¬†period ¬†of time:¬†five minutes, two weeks, six years
  • We use¬†since ¬†to talk about a¬†point ¬†in past time:¬†9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday
forsince
a period of timea point in past time
- - - - - - - - - - - -- ‚ÄĘ - - - - - - - - - -
20 minutes6.15pm
three daysMonday
6 monthsJanuary
4 years1994
2 centuries1800
a long timeI left school
everthe beginning of time
etcetc

Look at these example sentences using for and since  with the Present Perfect tense:

  • I have been here¬†for ¬†twenty minutes.
  • I have been here¬†since ¬†9 o'clock.
  • John hasn't called¬†for ¬†six months.
  • John hasn't called¬†since¬†February.
  • He has worked in New York¬†for ¬†a long time.
  • He has worked in New York¬†since ¬†he left school.
For  can be used with all tenses. Since  is usually used with perfect tenses only.

sources : Original Link