(also called Present Progressive)

We often use the Present Continuous tense in English. It is very different from the Present Simple tense, both in structure and in use.

How do we make the Present Continuous tense?

The structure of the Present Continuous tense is:

subject+auxiliary be+main verb
  conjugated in Present Simple  
am, are, ispresent participle (-ing)

The auxiliary verb (be) is conjugated in the Present Simple: am, are, is

The main verb is invariable in present participle form: -ing

For negative sentences we insert not  between the auxiliary verb and the main verb.

For question sentences, we exchange  the subject and the auxiliary verb.

Look at these example sentences with the Present Continuous tense:

 subjectauxiliary verb main verb 
+Iam speakingto you.
+Youare readingthis.
-Sheisnotstayingin London.
-Wearenotplayingfootball.
?Ishe watchingTV?
?Arethey waitingfor John?

How do we use the Present Continuous tense?

We use the Present Continuous to talk about:

  • action happening now
  • action in the future

Present Continuous for action happening now

a) for action happening exactly now

I  am eating my lunch.
pastpresentfuture
 
 The action is happening now. 

Look at these images. Right now you are looking at this screen and at the same time...

the pages are turningthe candle is burningthe numbers are spinning

b) for action happening around now

The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after now, and it is not permanent or habitual.

Present Continuous

Look at these examples:

  • Muriel¬† is learning¬†to drive.
  • I¬† am living¬†with my sister until I find an apartment.

Present Continuous for the future

We can also use the Present Continuous tense to talk about the future  - if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. "Future words" include, for example, tomorrow,  next year,  in June,  at Christmas etc. We only use the Present Continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking.

Present Continuous

Look at these examples:

  • We 're eating¬†at Joe's Cafe tonight. We've already booked the table..
  • They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They're¬†not¬†working.
  • When¬†are¬†you¬†starting ¬†your new job?

In these examples, a firm plan or programme exists before speaking. The decision and plan were made before speaking.

How do we spell the Present Continuous tense?

We make the Present Continuous tense by adding -ing to the base verb. Normally it's simple: we just add -ing. But sometimes we have to change the word a little. Perhaps we double the last letter, or we drop a letter. Here are the rules to help you know how to spell the Present Continuous tense.

Basic ruleJust add -ing  to the base verb:
work‚Üíworking
play‚Üíplaying
assist‚Üíassisting
see‚Üíseeing
be‚Üíbeing
ExceptionIf the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant, double the last letter:
stop
 consonantstressed
vowel
consonant
vowels = a, e, i, o, u
stop‚Üístopping
run‚Üírunning
begin‚Üíbeginning
Note that this exception does not  apply when the last syllable of the base verb is not stressed:
open‚Üíopening
ExceptionIf the base verb ends in ie , change the ie to y:
lie‚Üílying
die‚Üídying
ExceptionIf the base verb ends in vowel + consonant + e, omit the e:
come‚Üícoming
mistake‚Üímistaking
Note that continuous  tenses are also called progressive  tenses. So the Present Continuous tense is sometimes called the Present Progressive tense.

sources : Original Link